Conditions associated with azoospermia

Azoospermia is usually linked to other diseases. Actually, these conditions may hamper or halt sperm production, thus causing azoospermia.

Even though there are many diseases that may develop azoospermia-inducing unfrequent variants, we will focus on those with the clearest evidence. Nonetheless, before addressing these specific conditions, it should be noted that childhood diseases can have an effect on the development of the male reproductive system. That is case, for instance, of mumps, meningitis, high fevers or severe infectious processes.

Y-chromosome microdeletions

Disease characterised by microdeletions of the Y-chromosome, the absence of some genes Y-chromosome genes directly affects spermatogenesis. Its association with azoospermia is about 20%.

Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that mainly affects the pancreas and lungs. It can also produce infertility. 10% of men with obstructive azoospermia have congenital bilateral absence of the efferent ducts, that is, there are no transporation ducts where the sperm can travel from the testicles to the urethra. In 70% of the cases these men have cystic fibrosis or are carriers of the disease.

Chronic renal failure

Chronic renal failure can reduce testosterone production; this entails an increase in LF and FSH levels, having a direct impact on spermatogonesis. Extreme cases induce azoospermia.

Varicocele

Varicocele is the dilation of the sperm ducts. It is frequently linked to azoospermia, and the extent of the relationship varies depending on the source consulted: there may be a connection in 4.3-13.3% of the cases. Varicocele has a direct effect on the ducts that transport sperm; hence, severe cases can lead to azoospermia.

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